Masseter

Masseter-Properties (revision)     

  Masseter properties table

Labelled massterThe masseter is a quadrilateral muscle, there are two parts of this muscle the superficial and deep  part. The superficial part is the largest part of the masseter muscle. This arises from thick tendinous aponeurosis from the zygomatic process of the maxilla and from the anterior 2/3 of the lower border of the zygomatic arch. The fibres in the superficial part of the masseter run diagonally and backwards. This structure is related to its function. The superficial portion of the masseter inserts into the angle and lower half of the ramus of the mandible.

The deep portion of the masseter is smaller and muscular in texture. This part of the muscle arises from the posterior 1/3 of the lower border, and the whole of the medial surface of the zygomatic arch. Insertion to the upper half of the ramus and lateral surface of coronoid process of the mandible.

Parotideomasseteric fascia (masseteric fascia) covers the masseter, which is firmly connected with it, this is a strong layer of fascia derived from the deep cervical fascia.

 

Origin/Insertion

The masseter is a powerful elevator of the mandible, which may be easily palpable when teeth are clenched. The broad origin of the masseter is related to its function, the most efficient function of this muscle includes unilateral chewing. Masseters are the strongest muscles of mastication in herbivores. In humans the masseter is the second most efficient muscle in mastication. The reason being the high ratio of neurons to muscle fibres is 1:600.

Image (top) courtesy of http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Muscle_masseter.png under the terms of the GNU free Documentation license.

Image (bottom) courtesy of http://www.flickr.com/photos/kchocho-travel-addict/851263630/ under the creative commons license.

 

                    Masseter in situ

The action of the masseter:  
  • Elevation of the mandible
  • Lateral movements of mandible
  • Unilateral chewing
  • Retraction of mandible

The sole function of the masseter is to elevate the mandible (close the jaw) and crush objects between the molars, or in carnivores, to clench into other animals using the canine (fang) teeth.

Innervation

The masseter is supplied by the masseteric nerve which is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CNV)  which runs over the mandibular notch. The masseteric nerve curves laterally above the lateral pterygoid to enter the deep surface of masseter.

Damage to the trigeminal nerve causes the patient to experience symptoms, like headache and migraine.


Contact

Adam Higgins

99 Buckley Avenue,
Bond Street,
London
L1 0AD


01724 511600


Did you know?

The temporalis muscle is considered to me the strongest muscle in the human body. A man who suffered from an epileptic seizure saw most of his teeth shattered. 990 pounds was the record bite.